Kidney stones are clumps developed from solidified crystals in the kidney or urinary tract. The urine has all the ingredients that form the stone, but all these ideally pass through without our knowledge. When there is an imbalance in any of these substances, the crystals cluster together into stones. The size of the stone can be as small as a grain of sand to one as large as the size of a golf ball. The most commonly found kidney stone in humans is usually made of calcium oxalate. Other rare varieties of kidney stones include those made up of cystine, struvite (magnesium, ammonium and phosphate), calcium phosphate, uric acid, etc.
Kidney stones are one of the most painful of the urologic disorders. Men tend to be affected more frequently than women.
Causes of Kidney stone formation
Certain foods may promote stone formation in people who are susceptible. This stone formation is enhanced when there is increased intake of calcium, calcium oxalate, uric acid or salt in our diet, with an inadequate intake of fluids. A positive family history (genetic tendency) also makes a person prone to kidney stone formation.
Certain foods that increase the risk for kidney stone formation in susceptible individuals include: Spinach, rhubarb, chocolate, peanuts, cocoa, beet, coffee, cola, nuts, strawberries, tomato juice, grapefruit juice, apple juice, soda (acidic and contains phosphorus), all types of tea, and berries.
A ureter stone, also known as a ureteral stone, is essentially a kidney stone. It's a kidney stone that has moved from the kidney into another part of the urinary tract. The ureter is the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. It's about the same width as a small vein.
What are ureteral stones?
Ureteral stones are kidney stones that have become stuck in one or both ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder).
If the stone is large enough, it can block the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder. This blockage can cause severe pain. Kidney stones are formed from excess concentrations of minerals and salts in the urine. These minerals form crystals that grow into stones. Most kidney stones are calcium-based.
Many kidney stones are tiny. Some are too small to see with the naked eye, pass through the urine, and do not cause a problem. Larger stones that get stuck in the urinary tract can cause pain that may be severe.
Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. Your kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood, which are then excreted in your urine. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body.
In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, you may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired.
Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant.