In men, hair loss can begin any time after puberty and progress over the course of years or decades. It starts above the temples and continues around the perimeter and the top of the head, often leaving a ring of hair along the bottom of the scalp. Many men with male pattern hair loss eventually become bald.
In women, hair slowly thins all over the scalp, but the hairline usually doesn't recede. Many women experience this type of hair loss as a natural part of aging, although hair loss may begin any time after puberty. Female pattern hair loss can cause hair to thin dramatically, but only rarely does it lead to baldness.
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition, which means the body’s immune system attacks healthy tissues, including the hair follicles. This causes hair to fall out and prevents new hair from growing.
This condition can affect adults and children, and hair loss can begin suddenly and without warning. Hair from the scalp typically falls out in small patches and is not painful. Hair in other parts of the body, including the eyebrows and eyelashes, may also fall out. Over time, this disease may lead to alopecia totalis, or complete hair loss.
Greying of hair is caused when cells at the hair base (melanocytes) stop producing the pigment which is responsible for giving our hair its colour. To continue making the colour-producing pigment, the cells need Vitamin B12. In some cases, premature greying occurs if there's a deficiency of Vitamin B12.
Dandruff is a scalp condition that causes flakes of skin to appear. There may also be itching.
Most people experience dandruff at some point in their lives, but it is more common from the teenage years up to midlife.
There are various possible causes, including seborrheic dermatitis, allergic reactions, psoriasis, and eczema. An overreaction to Malassezia, a yeast that occurs on the scalp, is among the causes of seborrheic dermatitis.
Various factors increase the risk of developing dandruff, including a person's age, the weather, stress levels, medical conditions, and choice of hair products.
Poor hygiene is not a factor, but the flakes may be more visible if a person does not wash or brush their hair often.
People often feel self-conscious about dandruff, but help is available.