Migraine is a symptom complex of periodic headaches which are usually unilateral (one sided) and often associated with nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to noise and light. The attack of migraine is usually preceded by constriction (narrowing) of the cranial vessels (blood vessels supplying the brain and skull) and the headache commences with dilatation of these blood vessels. The attacks of migraine tend to be recurrent and the severity of attacks usually decreases as the patient ages.
Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder affecting children as well as adults. The patient experiences episodes of convulsive body movements medically termed as seizures. The seizures are typically described and observed as spasmodic, irregular body movements, affecting various muscle groups of body. It may present with varying intensity and duration, and different groups of muscles in different individuals, at different times.
Typically, epilepsy or seizures occur due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain which is reflected on different groups of muscles.
Epilepsy is a chronic disease having a tendency to relapse periodically and for many years to life time, if not adequately treated.
Muscular Dystrophy is not a single disease but a group of hereditary muscle destroying disorders. There are more than 30 types of these disorders, vary in their inheritance pattern, rate of progression, initial muscle attacked and age of onset.
The skeletal muscles are the main group of muscles affected in this disorder. The skeletal muscles are used during the voluntary body movements. There is progressive weakness and degeneration of these group of muscles.The disease may occur in adulthood or childhood, but the more severe form tends to occur in early childhood.
Anxiety can be described as a feeling of alarm or "worry". It may be about something specific or it may be non-specific in nature. A certain amount of anxiety is normal and helps improve our performance and allows people to avoid dangerous situations. This normally lasts for a short period causing no impairment in social or occupational functioning. When this anxiety is prolonged and affects social or occupational functioning, it's abnormal and accounts for anxiety "disorder".
General presentation of Anxiety disorders
Patients often experience a state of intense apprehension, uncertainty, and fear resulting from the anticipation of a threatening event or situation, often to a degree that normal physical and psychological functioning is disrupted. This may be precipitated due to several reasons which are generally easily identified by the patient himself. The anxiety is of a greater degree than just everyday worries and patients do mention that they are not able to control these worries. They are frequently accompanied with physical symptoms as well. These symptoms have to present for most days at least for several weeks at a time.
Depression is a chronic, long lasting or recurring and treatable disorder, where the patient experiences sadness, worthlessness, loss of motive, loss of interest and/or hopelessness.A depressive disorder is an illness that involves the mood and thoughts and in simple words can be expressed as persistent sad mood. Depression is not a character flaw or a sign of personal weakness and the suffering person canít make himself well by trying to snap out of it. Depression affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things. Depression results from a complex, partly understood biochemical changes in the brain, which are influenced and supported by multiple causes inclusive of genetic trait, circumstantial factors, hormonal factors, socio-personal reasons, etc. Increased levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine are found to improve the state of depression. Depression is much more common than we believe. However to get precise figures in terms of its prevalence is difficult as many of them go undetected and untreated. Women are twice more often affected with depression than men.Not everyone who is depressed experiences all the symptoms listed below. Some people experience a few symptoms, some many. Severity of symptoms varies with individuals and also varies over time.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental illness that causes repeated unwanted thoughts or sensations (obsessions) or the urge to do something over and over again (compulsions). Some people can have both obsessions and compulsions.
OCD isn't about habits like biting your nails or thinking negative thoughts. An obsessive thought might be that certain numbers or colors are "good" or "bad". A compulsive habit might be to wash your hands seven times after touching something that could be dirty. Although you may not want to think or do these things, you feel powerless to stop.
Everyone has habits or thoughts that repeat sometimes. People with OCD have thoughts or actions that: