Vertigo is a symptom characterized by a sensation of spinning or whirling, often accompanied by a feeling of unsteadiness or imbalance. It is not a condition itself but rather a symptom of an underlying issue affecting the vestibular system, which is responsible for balance and spatial orientation. Here are key points about vertigo:


  1. Causes of Vertigo:

    • Inner Ear Disorders: Conditions affecting the inner ear, such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere’s disease, or vestibular neuritis.
    • Central Nervous System Disorders: Issues within the brain, such as migraines, vestibular migraines, or tumors affecting the vestibular system.
    • Inflammation: Inflammation of the inner ear (vestibular neuritis) or the vestibular nerve.
    • Medications: Certain medications may cause vertigo as a side effect.
    • Dehydration or Low Blood Sugar: Conditions that affect the body’s fluid balance or blood sugar levels.
  2. Symptoms:

    • Spinning Sensation: A feeling that the environment or one’s own body is spinning or moving.
    • Nausea and Vomiting: Vertigo can be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
    • Sweating: Increased sweating may occur during a vertigo episode.
    • Nystagmus: Involuntary eye movements, often characterized by rapid, jerking motions.
    • Unsteadiness: A sensation of being off balance or unsteady.
  3. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV):

    • Common Cause: BPPV is a common cause of vertigo and is often triggered by changes in head position.
    • Short Episodes: Episodes of vertigo are usually brief and may be triggered by activities like turning in bed or tilting the head.
  4. Meniere’s Disease:

    • Symptoms: Vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
    • Episodic Attacks: Meniere’s disease is characterized by episodes of severe vertigo that can last for minutes to hours.
  5. Vestibular Migraines:

    • Migraine-Associated Vertigo: Some individuals experience vertigo as a part of their migraine attacks.
    • Visual Aura: Vestibular migraines may be associated with visual auras and other migraine symptoms.
  6. Diagnosis:

    • Medical History and Physical Examination: Healthcare professionals will inquire about symptoms and conduct a physical examination.
    • Dix-Hallpike Maneuver: A specific maneuver used to diagnose BPPV by inducing vertigo in a controlled manner.
    • Hearing Tests: Audiometry tests may be conducted to assess hearing in cases of suspected Meniere’s disease.
  7. Treatment:

    • Epley Maneuver: A technique used to treat BPPV by repositioning displaced inner ear crystals.
    • Medications: Depending on the underlying cause, medications such as anti-vertigo drugs, antihistamines, or migraine medications may be prescribed.
    • Lifestyle Modifications: Dietary changes and lifestyle modifications may be recommended for conditions like Meniere’s disease.
  8. Prevention:

    • Hydration: Ensuring proper hydration can help prevent vertigo episodes in some cases.
    • Avoiding Triggers: Identifying and avoiding triggers, such as specific head movements or dietary factors, may help prevent episodes.